Spain/EU, 2007

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Governed by: EU law: Articles 81 and 82 of the Treaty Establishing the European Communities (Rome Treaty), Regulation 1/2003 of 16 December 2002 [1] and Spanish Law no. 15/2007 of 3 July 2007 (hereinafter referred to as “Competition Act”). [2]

Category Subcategory Score Comment
Scope Extraterritoriality 1 EU law governs whenever conduct has effects on trade between Member States pursuant to Article 3 of Regulation 1/2003.
Remedies Fines 1 Article 53(2)(d) of the Competition Act allows for the imposition of fines as governed by Articles 63 and following.
Prison Sentences 0
Divestitures 1 Article 53(2)(b) of the Competition Act allows for structural remedies.
Private Enforcement 3rd Party Initiation 1 Article 49(1) of the Competition Act allows any concerned natural or legal persons to make a complaint.
Remedies Available to 3rd Parties 1 The preamble to the Competition Act states that the law is supplemented with additional provisions modifying certain jurisdictional and procedural rules in order to properly articulate the private enforcement of competition rules.[3]. Private enforcement of Articles 81 and 82 is mandated and encouraged by the European Commission.
3rd Party Rights in Proceedings 0
Merger Notification[4] Voluntary 0
Mandatory 3 Article 9 of the Competition Act requires mandatory notification of all concentrations.
Pre-merger 2 Article 9 requires the suspension of the concentration prior to a decision by the authority. This suspension may be lifted pursuant to Article 9(6).
Post-merger 0
Merger Assessment Dominance 1 Article 10(1) considers the market position, negotiation power, market structure, and actual or potential competition from other undertakings as relevant assessment factors.
Restriction of Competition 1 Article 10(1) considers the possible restrictive effects on competition.
Public Interest (Pro D) 1 Article 10(4) considers the possible non-economic benefits to the public when assessing a merger.
Public Interest (Pro Authority) 1 Article 10(4) considers the possible non-economic benefits to the public when assessing a merger.
Other 0
Efficiency 1 10(1)(h) considers economic efficiency.
Dominance Limits Access 1 Article 82(b) of the Rome Treaty prohibits limiting access.
Abusive Acts 1 Article 82 of the Rome Treaty prohibits abuse of dominant position.
Price Setting 1 Article 82(a) of the Rome Treaty prohibits price setting.
Discriminatory Pricing 1 Article 82(c) of the Rome Treaty prohibits discriminatory conditions.
Resale Price Maintenance 1 Article 82(a) prohibits resale price maintenance.
Obstacles to Entry 1 Article 82 prohibits anti-competitive pricing schemes.
Efficiency Defense 0
Restrictive Trade Practices Price Fixing 1 Article 81(1)(a) prohibits price fixing.
Tying 1 Article 81(1)(e) prohibits tying.
Market Division 1 Article 81 prohibits customer allocation clauses.
Output Restraint 1 Article 81(1)(b) prohibits limiting production.
Market Sharing 1 Article 81(1)(c) prohibits market sharing.
Eliminating Competitors 1 Article 81(1) prohibits agreements that have the purpose or effect of eliminating competition.
Collusive Tendering/Bid-Rigging 1 Article 81 prohibits bid-rigging.
Supply Refusal 1 Article 81(1)(b) prohibits supply refusal.
Efficiency Defense 1 Article 81(3) allows an efficiency defense.


  1. Available at
  2. Available in Spanish at
  3. Competition Act at page 4.
  4. The National Competition Authority will assess mergers under the National Competition Act. If the concentration affects trade between the Member States, the European Commission will assess the merger under Regulation 139/2004. See the coding for the European Commission for those provisions.