Spain/EU, 2007

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Governed by: EU law: Articles 81 and 82 of the Treaty Establishing the European Communities (Rome Treaty), Regulation 1/2003 of 16 December 2002 [1] and Spanish Law no. 15/2007 of 3 July 2007 (hereinafter referred to as “Competition Act”). [2]

Category Subcategory Score Comment
Scope Extraterritoriality 1 EU law governs whenever conduct has effects on trade between Member States pursuant to Article 3 of Regulation 1/2003.
Remedies Fines 1 Article 53(2)(d) of the Competition Act allows for the imposition of fines as governed by Articles 63 and following.
Prison Sentences 0
Divestitures 1 Article 53(2)(b) of the Competition Act allows for structural remedies.
Private Enforcement 3rd Party Initiation 1 Article 49(1) of the Competition Act allows any concerned natural or legal persons to make a complaint.
Remedies Available to 3rd Parties 1 The preamble to the Competition Act states that the law is supplemented with additional provisions modifying certain jurisdictional and procedural rules in order to properly articulate the private enforcement of competition rules.[3]. Private enforcement of Articles 81 and 82 is mandated and encouraged by the European Commission.
3rd Party Rights in Proceedings 0
Merger Notification[4] Voluntary 0
Mandatory 3 Article 9 of the Competition Act requires mandatory notification of all concentrations.
Pre-merger 2 Article 9 requires the suspension of the concentration prior to a decision by the authority. This suspension may be lifted pursuant to Article 9(6).
Post-merger 0
Merger Assessment Dominance 1 Article 10(1) considers the market position, negotiation power, market structure, and actual or potential competition from other undertakings as relevant assessment factors.
Restriction of Competition 1 Article 10(1) considers the possible restrictive effects on competition.
Public Interest (Pro D) 1 Article 10(4) considers the possible non-economic benefits to the public when assessing a merger.
Public Interest (Pro Authority) 1 Article 10(4) considers the possible non-economic benefits to the public when assessing a merger.
Other 0
Efficiency 1 10(1)(h) considers economic efficiency.
Dominance Limits Access 1 Article 2(2)(b) and (c) prohibit unjustified limitation of production or refusal to meet demand.
Abusive Acts 1 Article 2(1) prohibits acts that abuse dominant position.
Price Setting 1 Article 2(2)(a) prohibits price setting.
Discriminatory Pricing 1 Article 2(2)(d) prohibits applying unequal prices and conditions to equivalent transactions.
Resale Price Maintenance 1 Article 2(2)(a) prohibits resale price maintenance.
Obstacles to Entry 1 Article 2(2)(d) prohibits anti-competitive pricing schemes.
Efficiency Defense 0
Restrictive Trade Practices Price Fixing 1 Article 1(1)(a) prohibits price fixing.
Tying 1 Article 1(1)(e) prohibits tying.
Market Division 1 The Competition Act aims to mirror European Union law, which includes prohibition against market division in its section on restrictive trade practices. Spanish case law interpreted Article 1(1) of the previous law as including market division (customer allocation) in its list of prohibitions.[5]
Output Restraint 1 Article 1(1)(b) prohibits limiting or controlling production and distribution.
Market Sharing 1 Article 1(1)(c) prohibits market sharing.
Eliminating Competitors 1 Article 1(1)(d) prohibits anti-competitive pricing schemes.
Collusive Tendering/Bid-Rigging 1 The Act prohibits market partitioning including bid-rigging.[6]
Supply Refusal 1 Article 1(1)(b) prohibits unjustified limitation of production or distribution.
Efficiency Defense 1 Article 1(3) gives an exemption to the Article 1 prohibitions for agreements that contribute to improving the production or distribution of goods or promote technical or economic progress.


  1. Available at
  2. Available in Spanish at
  3. Competition Act at page 4.
  4. The National Competition Authority will assess mergers under the National Competition Act. If the concentration affects trade between the Member States, the European Commission will assess the merger under Regulation 139/2004. See the coding for the European Commission for those provisions.
  5. See Servicios Funerarios de Madrid, TDC Dec. 404/97, of 23 December 1997.
  6. at page 2.